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It was made up of artillery, engineers, and infantry raised in Italy, Dalmatia, Croatia, and Greece; cuirassiers and Italian dragoons; light horse, or stradioti, raised among Alba- nians, Groats, or Gimeriots.
Casoni, Forze militari in Venezia e le sue Lagune, Vol. I, Part II, p. The troops, apart from the commander-in-chief, who was always a foreigner, were officered by Heutenant-generals, brigadiers, colonels, lieutenant-colonels, captains, lieutenants, and subalterns under the orders of the Provveditori Generali and of the Savio della Scrittura, or Minister for War. Ivanovich, Minerva al tavolino, II, But as time went on discipline became relaxed, and drill and marching were neglected.
Down to the last, however, the govern- ment did not abandon its endeavours to give order and cohesion to the militia; the military college of Verona, wisely planned and directed, was founded in lyBi; in 1 77 1 the Inquisitori sopra ruoli were established, with powers to check the indiscipline and abuses of the troops ; in two companies of sappers and miners were attached to the engineers.
Nor was the govern- ment niggard in its expenditure. In the eighteenth century the joint budgets for the army and navy amounted to 2,, ducats when war was raging outside Venice, and to 1,, ducats in time of universal peace.
The troops were not paid, but enjoyed some exemptions from customs duties. Venezia, i , where he piles up shameful charges against Venice, describes both army and navy as the prey of insubordination and corruption. Venezia, i in a tone of generous indignation, which, however, sometimes lacks serenity of judgment. The army budget did not include the salary of the commander- in-chief.
Marshal Schulemburg drew as much as 25,ooo ducats a year. But, as we have already affirmed, the government was not niggard over its military expenditure, and the following fact is enough to prove that sound and abundant food was not wanting. The military bakeries which were. It is possible that not a few Venetians would have known how to prove that the ancient valour was not extinct had the calamities and the ruin of their country not been bound up with secret causes which no personal foresight and courage availed to obviate.
The desire for reform was wide- spread ; the growing needs of civilisation, the new discoveries, the new trend of economic laws, did not pass unnoticed in the lagoons, but they failed to exer- cise a wholesome action on a body which was already decrepit and outworn.
It happened, therefore, that the government was powerless to reacquire vigour, as now, at S. Martino on the Riva degli SchiavonI, came under the supervision of a board called the Camera all'avmar. They produced a biscuit, by a process lost in our day, which had the property of defying the weevil.
In a supply of biscuits, left by the Venetian government, was found in perfect condition in the island of Crete, which had passed to the Turks as long ago as Tassini, Curiositd, Veneziane, p. Notwithstanding the perilous condition of the times and the difficulties due to the antiquated machinery of government, the Venetians did endeavour to intro- duce reforms, and the Republic maintained her repu- tation for the prudence of her measures, for equity and legal acumen.
Long before constitutional monarchy and English parliamentary institutions became the model of sound government, all Europe, including England itself, sought instruction from the political wisdom of Venice. The Republic had already accepted some of the principles which underlay the great upheaval of , — such, for example, as the separation of legis- lative, executive, and judicial powers, tolerance, if not absolute liberty, in matters of faith, the freedom of the government from all dependence on the Church.
Venice was always sincerely and profoundly Catholic, but the authority of the Holy See was more limited there than in any other State in the world. The Jesuits, who were expelled in , and accompanied on their departure by the hostile murmurs of the crowd, '' Andh in malora,'' were recalled in by the interposition of the Pontiff, but only under conditions which put a check on their secret influence, more especially in the matter of edu- cation, and were again expelled in By a law of a limit was set on the perpetual recurrence to Rome for indulgences and privileges, con pregiudizio air esterior disciplina regolata dalla Chiesa e dallo Stato.
In , when the population had fallen off a little, there were priests who said Mass, clerks, 3i68 regu- lars, nuns ; total, As early as the seventeenth century it was the custom to take a census every five years. Its object was not merely with a view to sanitary and police regulations ; it aimed also at economic and social amelioration, at assisting trade and curing the evils of vagabondage and of poverty. Gassiano ; then at S.
MoisS in the Corte Barozzi. Apoetoli, and the general foreign post at the Riva del Yin at Riaito. But if internal navigation Avas encouraged, the state of the roads was deplorable, sprofondate, piene di buche, and although orders were issued and commissions appointed, which were sometimes efficient, as when the new road was opened into Tyrol, still, as a rule, the money was spent to little profit, and the regulations remained a dead letter.
In 1 a government office was established for the purpose of reclaiming marsh land and dealing with the irrigation of arid tracts ; an Agricultural Board was presently associated with the Board of i, and the 1 Pavanello, La strada e il traghetto delta Fossetta, pp.
Antonio Zanon, at the opening of the eighteenth century, introduced the cultivation of the mulberry into Friuli, and im- proved the vineyards, for which he received a gold medal from the Republic. Schools of agriculture were opened in many cities of the mainland, and a chair of agriculture was founded at Padua in and filled by Pietro Arduino. In that city, too, a model farm was estabHshed.
In fact, throughout the dominions of the Republic, schools of navigation, of commerce, agriculture, mathe- matics, drawing, architecture, civil and military en- gineering, sprang into being, and as early as Antonio Givran, Savio agli Ordini, while addressing the Senate on the decline of the Venetian marine, advo- cated the foundation of a school for sailors in the arsenal ' ' per sparger el seme della marittima profession in chi hebbe da Dio per proprio elemento el mar.
As a last record of her past glory Venice, in , republished an augmented edition of the Codice della veneta mercantile marina. In the preceding century the whole body of Venetian mercantile law had been gathered into a copious summary under the direction of two Soprantendenti.
The work was begun by Giovanni Finetti in and concluded by Marino Angcli in ; while by a decree of the Council of Ten, January 28, i, the entire Venetian Code was recopied and arranged ; the laws affecting feudal tenures were co-ordinated in 1 and lucidly annotated in by Giovanni Bonifacio. Printing was the most flourishing of the arts, and on his journey through Italy in the Abbe Andres remarked that Venice possessed more books and more people engaged in the book trade than any other city.
The press, though subject to censorship, was not strangled, and when the great French Encyclopaedia appeared, an edition was printed at Padua with valuable additions and corrections, under the imprimatur of the Reformatori dello Studio. Public instruction was amply and wisely fostered. Even as early as the Senate had turned its attention to the erection of a college for the education of indigent young nobles, and on August 17, , with the help of private donations, the Accademia dei Nobili was opened on the Giudecca, for the purpose of instructing forty impoverished noble youths, whose 1 Bilanci generali, cit.
At the same time the State provided schools in each quar- ter of the city for the education of the people, where the maestri di sestiere taught the elements of religion, reading, writing, and arithmetic. The limits of age for admission were from ten to thir- teen. The nobles remained in the Academy up to the age of twenty.
The direction was entrusted to the Padri Somaschi at the opening of the Setle- cento. The staff consisted of six professors, including the rector and vice- rector, five priests as under masters in the lower classes, two lay-brothers and six laymen for the service of the college.
In a chair of civil law was founded. The government provided not only the teaching staff and the board and lodging of the students, but also their uniform, which con- sisted oft suit of black with a blue cloak Bibl. And this vigilance went hand in hand with works which prove that the patriciate still retained some rem- nants of its ancient grandeur.
In the days when Venice appeared most demoralised and exhausted i she raised, as a bulwark against the waves of the Adriatic, that massive breakwater of the Murazzi, metres long at Pellestrina, metres long at Sottomarina, and spent about twenty million Vene- tian lire on this work, truly Roman in its boldness, — a monument of what the Republic was still capable of achieving during the very last years of her life.
The Murazzi were built by the architect Bernardino Zendrini, mathematician to the Republic. The actual inscription runs thus: Its political constitution had rendered Venice great and powerful, and not only the patriciate but also the lower classes were accustomed to look upon it as inviolable and to nourish a profound reverence for the ancient institutions. The power of the aristocracy, sur- rounded by pomp and mystery, came to be regarded by the people as something almost divine, a sacred privilege of the upper classes, who in their turn looked upon government as their absolute right, tempered, however, by duties towards the larger and the lower classes.
Such a conception of government did not conform to the dominant ideas of the new era which called for radical innovations.
If the natural equality of mankind were once affirmed, the old edifice must inevitably fall to the ground never to rise again, and the ruUng class shrank from demolishing what they knew themselves incapable of rebuilding.
The rigidity of her institutions, to which the Republic owed her long life, was also the cause of her death. Change would have meant disintegration; and the old order was maintained with a tenacity not unlike that which induces the Court of Rome to reject all innovation in spirit or in letter and is the source of her strength. When Venice came into collision with those events which changed the course of human ideas, she was bound to perish.
Events must be studied in their epoch, and every race in the light of its mission and its destiny. The infusion of new blood could not avail to save from ruin the patriciate, though, as a matter of fact, it was not yet utterly sunk in sloth and lethargy.
After the wars of Candia and the Morea, with a view to replenishing the exhausted treasury, and in spite of the opinion of those who held that it THE NEW NOBLES 25 was better to pawn the revenue or the capital of the State, or even to sell one of the provinces rather than the patriciate, the Libro doro was thrown open to many families who acquired the title of Patrizio Veneto in return for gold.
From the valleys of the Bergamasque came also Giuseppe Persico, who lodged in the shop of a silk-mercer at San Lio, sei'vendo in essa e nella casa nei piu umili senigi delta medesima, Jino andare per le strade a prendere Vacqua con bigblo a pubblici pozzi per il servizio della cucina.
Maffio Albrizzi, who died in decrepitude in i, also came from Bergamo; he was a haberdasher, and from him descended the patrician family of the Albrizzi. The following Brescians were inscribed in the Libro d'oro: In it invited forty noble families of the main- land to enroll themselves in the Libro doro without any burden whatsoever, but only nine accepted.
The title of patrician had already lost its attractions, for inside the patriciate itself distinctions created by an- cient descent and family pride continued to exist. The nobles of long pedigree regarded with contempt, and the populace with envy, these plebeians who, thanks to their wealth, assumed the patricians' robes. Gian Carlo Sivos, in his Cronaca Bibl. The Doge fell ill of chagrin, while the nobles revenged themselves on his nephew by refusing to elect him to a high office. A mocking epitaph records that Qui giace il gran Donado testolina Mercante e senator plusquam perfetto Fatlo Doxe mori per un banchetto Stronzk da un suo nipote per rapina.
The Venetian Gianfrancesco Businello, advocate and satirist, who flourished at the opening of the seventeenth century, hat left these verses: Un pezo de vilan de la valada Un capel de castor porterk in testa, Un ch' k portk sportele mete vesta, Un zavater ga pan e vin d'intrada. All the sons of a patrician enjoyed equal privileges and rights. The absence of primogeniture had conferred a blessing in the earlier years of the Republic by preserving the peace among the noble families.
For had cadets found themselves in a worse financial con- dition than the eldest sons, they would have used their political equality to disturb both the family and the State. We must further consider that family wealth accumulated in the hands of one member only would have roused the jealousy of the Republic ; we have an instance in the case of three rich Cornaro brothers who were forbidden, under pain of banishment and confis- cation, to take wives unto themselves.
Moreover, this equality of family wealth allowed each member of a family to fill government offices, even the more costly ones which only a rich man could assume; while, on the other hand, the danger that family wealth, if di- vided, would be dispersed, was counteracted by the custom which led the whole family to live together without a division of property; it was usual for one brother only — and that the youngest — to marry.
The Espion chinois, clt. Les uns et les autres tirent leur tige du meme tronc: A Peer of the United Kingdom who has sons among the commoners loves them, understands them, exchanges ideas, shares blood and name, but does not lose prestige, does not despise, and is not despised.
The more advanced and liberal of the nobility never enter- tained the idea of altering the constitution, and con- fined themselves to fighting the little group of patricians who had concentrated the administration in their own hands, and to defending the prerogatives of the Great Council which had gradually been usurped by the Ten and the Inquisitors of State.
The leaven of these reforms had been fermenting for many years, and the fierce debates aroused by Rinieri Zeno brought about the reform of the Council of Ten in Nor was there any law prescribing equality of succession among the brothers in a family, though this did not alter the fact that all the brothers enjoyed equal political rights.
They were five in number and held office for one year. The most important of their reforms belong to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, notably their action regarding the Ten in i6a8 and in a. Scipione Maffei, the illustrious Veronese savant and poet, received a sharp rebuke for having ventured to advocate representative government for the dependencies of the Republic ; and still severer measures were taken against the nobles who desired to curb the powers of the Ten and of the Inquisitors.
Lorenzo Tiepolo in , and Francesco Foscari in , were confined to their houses ; Niccolo Bon and Paolo Dona, in the latter year, were banished one to the monastery of Venda and the second to the fortress of Palma ; in Angelo Quirini was interned in the castle of San Felice at Verona. The arrest of Quirini brought about the reform of with a view to appeasing the followers of the turbulent noble who were disaffected with the omnipotence of the Ten.
Quirini was released in , and returned to public life still inspired by his original views ; in he made a journey to Switzerland and France, where he met and became friends with Voltaire.
VenetOt XV, , But in contradistinction to these mod- erate proposals, ominous passions swayed a section of the patriciate, inspired not by the love of liberty but by a desire to fish in troubled waters. As commerce declined and the larger part of the archipelago was lost, a body of indigent nobles gradually came into existence.
They were without income of any kind, yet by right of birth they shared the sovereignty in the State. They were called Barnabotti, from the parish of San Barnaba, where they were originally lodged at the public expense ; and they openly claimed from the Republic the means of living, and formed a venal and disorderly group in the Great Council.
In public they affected familiarity to ingratiate themselves with the people who paid them no heed ; in the Council chamber they gave voice to the aims of the restless and discontented who are never wanting in a State.
Tuto reduto in carestia 1 Benedeta Vanema del doxe Silvestro Valier, maledeta la vostra e dei vostri fioi ; la giastizia di Dio fulmini i-vostri graneri e le vostre caneve.
On another occasion in various places in the Ducal Palace were found scraps of paper bearing the letters: The courage of the malcontents increased when the party of the Barnabotii found two bold leaders, Giorgio Pisani and Carlo Gontarini.
Pisani, unscrupulous, ingenious, and vehement, thundered from the tribune of the Great Council ; attacked the government, in- veighed against the oligarchy, the enemy of the people, and ended by covertly demanding an increase in the subsidy of the " poor nobles.
The Doge Paolo Renier remarked that true patriotism consisted not in stirring up agitations, but in a unanimous effort to secure the greatness of the State, public safety, and common glory.
The Procurator, blossoming on the revolutionary stem, flung aside all restraint, and openly professed his intention to overthrow the old order, to sweep away Doge and Signory and rich alike, and to carry a kind of agrarian law in favour of the ' ' poor nobles. When we consider the schisms, antagonisms, and vio- lence which rent the aristocratic caste, it is amazing that the structure erected by Pietro Gradenigo should have survived so long without reforms. He published his Memorie under the title of Vita, processi e pensieri di Giorgio Pisani ex-veneto.
Only the first volume was published. See also Vecchiato's apology for Pisani Padova, During the eighteenth cen- tury they brought in a revenue which varied between five and five and a half millions of ducats yearly. The indirect taxes were the quintello, or five per cent, on indirect succession ; the messetaria, or tax on contracts ; the customs dues ; the revenue from tohacco, salt, and the lottery ; the tithe on minerals.
The mint also yielded revenue not only from money coined, but also from opera- tions conducted for private individuals. The mint administered the Funds, or Monti, which were exempt from taxation except in case of death or bankruptcy. Between and the lowest revenue return was in , giving 4,8a5, ducats; the highest in , giving 5,, ducats.
At that date the ducat corresponded to lire italiane For the value of money see Part I, Vol. We may add that in the scudo veneto, of the value of 7 lire venete, was coined. The sequin, which in was worth lire venete See Papadopoli, Sul valore delta moneta ven..
Tables I and II. See also Angelo Martini, Manuale di Metrologia, pp. Torino, , who gives the relation between the lira veneta and the lira italiana thus: Lira veneta of 20 soldi — Lira ital.
In the Board of Revisers scansadori was established, and in it was entrusted with the administration of the Monti di Pieta, or Public Pawnshops. Nevertheless the budgets usually closed with a heavy deficit, while the national debt gradually mounted till it reached the capital sum of eighty million ducats, entailing a yearly outlay of two and a half million ducats to meet the interest and the sinking fund.
Determined efforts were made to reduce the debt, and in fact by it was considerably diminished. Besides this there were extra expenses and the cost of the spazzo, or embassy courier.
See Bilanci genei'ali, cit. The Council of Ten, which had to support its own oflBcers, received from 4o,ooo to 5o,ooo ducats a year. The stationary office spent from 11, to 21, ducats. Postal expenses ran from to ducats. In the national debt cost a,,o In it cost 2,,ooo ducats, of which , went to the sinking fund. The traditional wisdom of Venetian finance continued intact to the very last; but confined as it was within rigid formulas, it lacked the elasticity required to meet new circumstances, when times became troubled by bold and innovating theories.
That practical com- mon sense which was almost the patrimony of the Venetian patriciate neglected the science of political economy which flourished so vigorously in the eigh- teenth century. The notable economic reforms carried out in Lombardy under Austrian rule, Tuscany, and Naples, were the product of distinguished economists; but Venetian authorities, like Giammaria Ortes, Scipione Majffei, Antonio Zanon, Francesco Mengotti, and Istrian professors, like Gian Rinaldo Carli, Marcello Marchesini, and others, who handled the questions of public economy, exercised but a scanty influence on the economic prac- tice of the Republic; the illustrious Ortes, for example, 1 Lampertico, Avvertenza to Vol.
Ill of the Bilanci generali, cit. The price of money was not high. Pious foundations and confraternities offered capital on mortgages at four per cent. Merchants advanced at six per cent on bills. Nine per cent was considered usurious. All the same usury flourished, but chiefly on the impecunious and the gamblers. Extracts from these memoirs, especially as regards Vene- tian trade, were published by Prof.
The wars of Candia and the Morea exhausted the public treasury, while the growing audacity of the pirates, the competition of England, Holland, and other States in the Levant trade, and the upward tendency of taxation demanded by the Exchequer, all contributed to undermine Venetian commerce, which was already reduced to the narrow limits of home products, and, though fairly active in certain departments, 2 was no longer worthy of a city which once commanded the trade of the world.
Ortes e la scienza economica del suo tempo. The studies of Beloch Bevolkerungsgeschichte der R. I, corrected by Gontonto II cens. We subsist by chance and good luck. She wisely opened safe ports ajt Spalato in Dalmatia and Durazzo in Albania; she never relaxed her efforts to encourage navigation, and granted privileges to ship-builders, master mariners, and sea- men; she fostered insurance companies, and in she developed the grandiose scheme of ' ' commerce and customs.
The treaty is published in the Recueil historique d'actes, negotiations, mSmoires et traitez depuis la paix d' Utrecht jusquau second Congrls de Cambray, by M.
Rousset, k la Haye, , II, 4i i et seq. The treaty with Venice is on pp. Gappelletti, Storia della Repubblica, Tom. XI, reproduces the treaty translated from Latin into Italian.
Their spirit of acute observation had not deserted them, and they presented admirably lucid reports not merely on the constitution, politics, religion, armament, and characteristics of the various countries of Europe, but also on their natural products, trade, industries, revenues, expenditures, and all the ramifications of their national life.
Vignola gives detailed information on the trade and industries of England. We may quote the following passage from a letter dated February 28, fol. Non so per qual combinazione mi venne fatto vedere ne' giorni scorsi la Terra, o sia Greta, che qui adoperasi per fabbricar Pippe. Nell' esaminarla non potei persuadere me stesso che non 86 ne possa trovar di consimile anche negli stati di V.
Per questo cogliendo I'occasione della Nave Inglese nominata L'Imperatore Romano, che iik per sciogliere a momenti per cotesti Lidi, ho creduto mia doverosa attenzione di spedime una Mostra a coteslo gravissimo Magistrate, onde si possa riconoscere, se di equale se ne trovi nelle suddette Provincie.
La Greta, ossia la Terra in questione, si trova nelle Provincie Occidentali di questo Regno e particolarmente nei Terreni umidi, oleosi e a pie de' Monti.
Quando la si raccoglie, k umida, oleosa, e pesante. Qui si custodisce COMMERCE 39 Trade, however, had now ceased to attract the Vene- tians; commerce and industry were despised by the patricians, more especially by those recently ennobled. We have as illustrious exceptions the Doge Marco Fosca- rini, who established a coral factory at Pontelungo for the working of coral brought from Dalmatia and the Levant; also one of the Zenobio family, who, in the last years of the Republic, despatched shiploads of grain to Amer- ica and realised his house property and land to raise the funds necessary for trading.
But these were excep- tions, and the rich preferred to invest in estates on the mainland. The messetaria, which in the palmy days of Venetian trade was the sole tax imposed on commercial contracts, was followed by numerous and burdensome duties, "da altri pesi addossati ai basti- menti, dai esorbitanti dispendi delle contumacie, peste, lazzaretti, et altro; dalle tante spedizioni in doane diverse con numerosi ministri e stanchezzi dalla soggezione delle arti, dair inviluppo dei vincoli che encatenano la liberta della mercatura.
Quella poca, che io potei industriosamente procurarmi, sari in piccola Gassetta presentata a cotesto gravissimo Magistrate dalla ditla Salo- mon Treves, mio corrispondente e nella medesima vi troverano pure V. Senza detta terra non avrebbe il Tabacco di Spagna quel bel colore, per cui tanto si raccomanda.
II y a de grands droits sur les marchandisos. Giovanni Alvise Mocenigo, ambassador in France, wrote, on September 4, i75i, that he had mercanzia, published per nozze Bisacco-Palazzi, p. The Savl and Deputati add p. Published per nozze Reali-Beretta. The earhest notices on the subject of smug- gling and on the steps taken to check it are to be found in the papers of the Caitaver ; and the series of enactments for the repression of fraud in the lading of 1 Published per nozze Cecchini-Andreoli.
On this question of the growth of Trieste, see the report of the Board of Trade, SnlV ingrandimento di Trieste nel sec. Drawn up in and pub- lished per nozze Guaita-Gozzi Venezia, ; and Marchesi, Le condiziont commerciali di Venezia di f route a Trieste nel sec.
The steady rise in the customs duties increased the activity of the smugglers, and the terrors of the law failed to damp their ardour; in armed bands they boldly broke through the customs cordons, tore down palisades, and wounded and slew the excise- men.
In the Senate appointed three of its members as customs commissioners. Smuggling was commonest on board the merchant galleys, especially those that traded to Dalmatia and Albania.
On July 10, , the Board of Trade received orders to draw up a distinta, particolar et intiera nota of all bills of lading. But the dannoso et pernicioso abuso was not confined to any particular class, and we find persone d'ogni condizion, including the patricians themselves, engaged in smug- gling, as is proved by a decree of the Senate dated December 27, i64o. To deal with this abuse the Senate, in 17 16, appointed a new Inqaisitore sopra dazt.
But the repeated erection of new offices was of no avail to remedy the evils which were eating out the heart of Venetian commerce, and the five commission- ers appointed in to assist the Board of Trade freauently found themselves in opposition to the Board itself, and their office did not last for more than fifty years.
With the decline of Venetian commerce came the collapse of her industries. INDUSTRY 43 of the estuary still flourished ; they employed ahout thirty thousand souls, and after supplying the capital and some of the provinces, brought in a revenue of one hundred and twenty thousand ducats by trade with other States. Venetian drugs, especially triaca, were in great demand in Turkey. River navigation, though not so flourishing as it once was, still survived.
Trade along the land routes, except the one over the passes of Pontebba and Primolano, languished. Craftsmen and dealers, arti- ficers and merchants, from all countries continued to meet in great numbers at the Ascensiontide Fair, which still retained its position in spite of the danger- ous competition of the great Fair at Senigallia, insti- tuted by Pope Clement XII.
But Venetian industries suffered from the rigid adherence to trade secrets and the empirical methods of the past, which prevented them from holding their own in competition with other nations who had availed themselves of scientific dis- coveries.
The praiseworthy efforts of private indi- viduals were powerless to infuse new vigour into native industry, which found itself unable to face the altered conditions either by its innate skill or through the protection afforded by the government, though some few industries allied to arts were still able to rival tlie products of the preceding centuries, especially those which dealt with furniture or dress.
The glass-workers of Murano still knew how to wed the fine taste of the earlier models to the prevalent barocco style without any sacrifice of harmony. The art of glass-blowing reached its highest possible per- fection in the gradation of colours, in enamels, in the imitation of chalcedony, in the preparation of tliat glittering composition called avventurina, it is said, 1 Lamberti, Memories loc. Miotti belonged to the illustrious family which, in company with the Briani, lent an impulse to the bead manufacture and to all other branches of the glass works at Murano.
To Magagnati is likewise due the substitution of crystal panes in windows instead of the older bottle-glass roundels. Liberale Motta carried the making of looking- glasses to perfection, and in he turned out mirrors of a size hitherto unknown. The trade in glass con- tinued to yield handsome returns during the seventeenth century, until the furnaces of France, of England, and above all of Bohemia, thanks to new mechanical and chemical discoveries, ousted the hand-worker and the blowpipe.
INDUSTRY 45 when a professor of chemistry suggested certain im- provements in the construction of the furnaces the Murano glass-blowers petitioned the government to reject the scheme, adding, with a touch of irony, that prac- tice, as frequently happened, was not in harmony with the illustrious professor's theories.
Toward the close of the Republic there was a revival of the art, and specimens not unworthy of Murano's ancient glory were produced by the Miotti, Bigaglia, Seguso, Mestre, Barbini, Gastadello, and Motta.
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