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maman francaise porn erotica nancy

And indeed, the erotically charged language that Tota and Giottina create, at times seems to be a non-language. Dense with symbolism, it both attracts and repels Vannina who, through these symbolic mothers, is nevertheless initiated into female complicity.

For Wittig there is no such thing as being a woman, or a man, as the category of sex has been created as a consequence of patriarchal oppression and has then become an alibi for social, economic, psychological differences between two artificially constituted sexes. Eventually, the two women will find themselves in love with each other. It may be hard to resist the temptation of seeing in Suna the image of the advocate feminist. She is an active member of a Marxist movement, on whose behalf she conducts a survey of the exploitation of female workers in the South of Italy and it is she who awakens Vannina from her state of passivity and subservience to her husband.

And yet, upon closer examination, some inconsistencies in her character will soon come to the fore. The reader will discover that she is no less dependent on her father than Vannina is on Giacinto, although for different reasons. This is a position with which Butler herself concurs, at least inasmuch as the performative character of the same is concerned Kirby, , p. Not only does Vannina disentangle herself from a patriarchal net of expectations and impositions, but also, on more than one occasion, she herself displays a sexuality that goes against sexual norms.

Undoubtedly the most emblematic character in the novel, the latter epitomises non-conformity to the Law of the Symbolic order, the primordial forces of nature against culture, against patriarchal society and the influence it exerts upon women. Her unconventionality and extraneousness to convention, but also, at a metaphorical level, the clash between the Semiotic Nature and the Symbolic Culture , is well exemplified by her behaving according to the cycle of the seasons: As the Greek myth goes, when her daughter Persephone is abducted and taken to the underworld, Demeter, upon whom the fruitfulness of the earth depends, renounces her divine functions to look for her, thus bringing about winter.

Even more relevant to our analysis is the revision of the myth by Italian philosopher of sexual difference Adriana Cavarero in her ground-breaking work In Spite of Plato Marginalisation and electroshock therapy is the exacted price for subverting the norm. At times verging on incestuous drives towards both parents by her own admission she shares with the mother the same sexual partners out of a wish to possess her through their bodies , she is obsessed with the male organ and fantasizes having it.

The defiance of a prescriptive sexuality in the novel is exemplified by an account Piera herself gives of her mother: Lacking female support, her subversive nature cannot lead her beyond a mere critique deconstruction of patriarchal ideology.

Her cry against non-conformity will thus remain unheard and she will spend her last days in the seclusion of a mental hospital—her punishment for defying the Symbolic order.

And it is perhaps no coincidence that both characters who subvert patriarchal sexual norms are made to die by Maraini. However, I would like to advance an interpretation of the novels that refutes a negative reading of the same, as if, to borrow Itala T. It will thus serve the function of introducing the last of the three novels under discussion. If the universal is masculine, and heterosexual, then it follows that Bianca as woman, and a lesbian, is marked off by the system twice over.

Indeed, it might be seen as a device used by women to free themselves from the constraints of a society modelled on a master father, husband, son? Bianca is constantly reminded of the need to escape a binary system and the imposition of rigid sexual categories. Non capisco bene cosa vuol dire sola senza figli sola senza marito sola senza madri padre sorelle?

She is not—as Butler would have it—socially intelligible. Bodies generate and, if we agree with Foucault, are generated by power relations, which, in turn, translate into incarnated binary constructs. Interestingly though and in line with the above, not only is the protagonist of the novel at odds with the gender roles patriarchal society would expect her to fulfil, but she seems equally unwilling to embrace a monolithic homosexuality. On the other hand, it is also true that the coexistence of lesbianism and bisexuality in the text remains far from unproblematic.

The implications of such a predicament are not difficult to foresee. Indeed, one is here faced with the paradox that the rejection of compulsory heterosexuality is carried out through the perpetuation of the very same binary structure which lies at its foundations. But this does not mean privileging the feminine side of the debate either, as it would be but a repetition of the hierarchy—however reversed. In other words, the point is not displacing a dominant discourse which we have said is recognised as marked as masculine with its feminine counterpart.

Indeed, to say that women love men, and cannot love women, is the same as to say that women love women, and cannot love men. It is only the terms of the equation that change, not the effect. This also raises a point on the ambiguity which lies in the use of language and the limitations intrinsic to language itself—namely, its undecidability. And is it not perhaps significant that, at odds as he is with the logocentrism of the Western world, Derrida has chosen dance—that it to say, a non-verbal form of art—for his metaphor?

Following on from this premise, it would be too tempting to deduce that the novel ends in a reaffirmation of heterosexuality, a view taken by Beverly Ballaro , p. If it is true that Bianca, having given up on Marina, starts a relationship with the barman Damiano, it is also true that, towards the end of the novel, she feels an impulse to kiss his stepmother who is also his lover. This reading finds further endorsement in a dream scene. Bianca is lying in bed and falls asleep; she starts dreaming about Damiano but soon after, between their bodies, an unidentified female figure makes an appearance, and Bianca finds herself fantasising about this unexpected presence.

By renouncing an arbitrary resolution of the sexuality of her female protagonist, then, Maraini seems to be warning the readers against the relativity of culturally determined gender roles, reminding them instead of the infinite spectrum of permutations gender might take.

The very last scene would reinforce this interpretation. I would now like to briefly call for a comparison between the three works on the theme of female solidarity.

From Julia Kristeva to Luce Irigaray to Luisa Muraro not to forget American poet and essayist Adrienne Rich , feminists have focussed on revising the role of the maternal and the recuperation of a maternal symbolic order. Bianca finds in Basilia that tenderness that Marina seems incapable to provide her, being obsessed as she is with the wish to possess her lover. And through this nurturing lovingness Bianca has also re discovered a bond with the figure of her mother.

Because motherhood, as we perceive it in the text, not only transcends biological constraints, it also reaches out to women across generations.

Bianca, seen as a more mature, self-conscious version of Vannina, shows us that patriarchal libidinal economy has to be challenged from within the system. Indeed, Donna in guerra recounts the process of the consciousness-raising of the protagonist and concludes with her embarking on a journey towards self-awareness of whose outcome, however, we are given no account. In the same way as Vannina with the female figures she encounters along her path, Bianca proves to be receptive to the offer of allegiance from her mentor Basilia, an allegiance which she uses as a Trojan horse to oppose a phallocentric system that wants to silence her, her condition being represented, on a metaphorical level, by her inability to finish the novel she is working on as a professional writer.

Thus, unlike the mother in Storia di Piera , silenced by a phallocratic system which does not recognise her, she is able to find her own voice again, metaphorically, resuming her own story. As such, the suggestive formulation of the choreography of gender which opened this article becomes the key to the reading of the sexual identities portrayed in the three novels. Gender—seen as a dance—is reminiscent of a Derridean process which reminds us of the infinite spectrum of permutations it might take.

This might not provide feminism with a final answer on how to move from resistance into action, it is just the first step of the political programme which is called into question, but is a step nonetheless. It exposes a logic of exclusion and calls for the construction of alternative spaces.

It suggests that neither biology nor social constructs can define such a thing as the female sexed body. In Bodies that Matter , Butler questions the mutual exclusivity of heterosexuality and homosexuality Butler, By staging non-normative sexualities, Maraini provides, through her characters, a call for the understanding of gender roles as a product of rigid mechanisms of power which result in patterns of behaviour that, consolidated through time, translate into the political, social and cultural supremacy of the male over the female gender.

Making the Lesbian Body: New Perspectives in Italian Cultural Studies. Questo libro sulla memoria di una donna, Paese Sera , April 22 nd [online]. Se la donna ama una donna, Gazzetta del Popolo , April 18 th [online]. Dibattito su un libro difficile: Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: Theatre Journal , 40 4 , pp. A Politics of the Performative. Con tutto da ricominciare: In Spite of Plato: A Feminist Reading of Ancient Philosophy.

Towards a Theory of Sexual Difference. London and New York, Routledge. Fra madre e marito: Women in Italian Culture. Revolution in the Laundry. The pleasure of Writing: Critical Essays on Dacia Maraini.

Diacritics , 12 2 , pp. The Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman From Prostitution to Transsexuality: Judith Butler Live Theory. Italica, 65 4 , pp. An Anthology , Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. Motherhood as Experience and Institution. Tre Domande a Dacia Maraini.

Il Resto del Carlino , November 18 th [online]. Feminist Theory as Practice: A Conversation with Dacia Maraini. World Literature Today , 85 4 pp. Contemporary Women Writers in Italy: A Modern Renaissance , Santo L. The Straight Mind and Other Essays. See for example her Campiello prize winner novel La lunga vita di Marianna Ucria which, following the life of a mute duchess living in the eighteenth century the inspiration for the character came to Maraini from a portrait of an aristocratic Sicilian ancestor of hers, Duchess Marianna Alliata Valguarnera , can be read as a timeless narration of the silencing of women in patriarchy.

Since the main suspect was a member of the army and he accused the socialists of manipulating the news, the case soon acquired political implications. In an interview released the same year of the publication of the novel, she stated: This and all subsequent translations are my own Maraini, a, p.

I did the dishes. I scoured the saucepans. Although their bond never acquires openly homosexual connotations, it nevertheless goes beyond fatherly love, acquiring instead, I would contend, a queer twinge. A bond of symbolic motherhood-sisterhood, which transcends the biological sphere, is thus established. For a more detailed exploration of the polysemy of the word, see Introduction 3 by the editors of the volume in New French Feminisms: An Anthology , eds.

Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron where jouissance is defined in the following terms: I do not quite understand what it means alone without children alone without husband alone without mothers fathers sisters? La complessità dei personaggi, il racconto a due voci, la sfasatura tra realtà e finzione, indagata già dallo scrittore nei suoi precedenti romanzi, inseriscono a pieno titolo Itaca per sempre nella più innovativa produzione malerbiana.

Penelope è sempre presente nei testi in prosa e poesia che esplorano il mito in questione; tuttavia solo raramente questa figura femminile è stata la protagonista di una riscrittura. Nella produzione letteraria italiana sarà nel , col romanzo Itaca per sempre di Luigi Malerba, pubblicato da Mondadori, che la sposa di Ulisse avrà finalmente un ruolo decisivo.

Malerba narra le vicende di Ulisse una volta approdato a Itaca, travestito da mendicante, dopo la permanenza nel regno dei Feaci. Il gioco di finzioni, tuttavia, si spinge al di là di dove la coppia effettivamente prevedeva di arrivare.

Penelope dubita di Ulisse: Ulisse dubita di Penelope: La risposta viene dal mare:. Penelope è disperata per la nuova perdita del marito, offeso dalla moglie a sua volta offesa da lui, e implora Telemaco di trattenere il padre. Dopo il riconoscimento, il lieto fine. Ulisse fa la sua scelta, torna al palazzo e annuncia a Penelope: Il mare, finalmente, non è più un elemento negativo, né per le sue tempeste, né per le sue tentazioni.

Ulisse potrà rivivere le sue avventure nella scrittura, dare finalmente libero sfogo alla sua fantasia, alla sua arte di raccontare che già aveva dimostrato di possedere alla reggia dei Feaci: Nel , nove anni prima della pubblicazione di Itaca per sempre , Maria Corti scrive in Autografo , p. Itaca per sempre potrebbe sembrare un outsider rispetto alle opere precedenti: Lo conferma anche Rocco Capozzi, che nella sua recensione a Itaca per sempre scrive:.

In Itaca per sempre il genio narrativo di Malerba è riconoscibile ad ogni livello della narrazione: Malerba si è sempre distinto per le sue arguzie linguistiche e per il suo inimitabile wit comico, ironico, e parodico nel presentare delle menzogne narrative con tale naturalezza da farle apparire come parte della realtà che ci circonda. Si pensi ad alcuni dei suoi romanzi quali Il serpente , Salto mortale , e Il protagonista La trama del romanzo è intrecciata e, come in una sorta di diario, le pagine del libro alternano i pensieri di Ulisse e quelli di sua moglie, che ripercorrono gli stessi eventi dalle loro diverse prospettive.

Ad esempio, quando Telemaco invita Ulisse a indossare i suoi vecchi abiti, il lettore legge due volte lo stesso episodio, prima dal punto di vista di Ulisse:. E allora di nuovo è intervenuto Telemaco. Ho cercato di nascondere sotto il manto di porpora la tunica troppo stretta e mi sono presentato timidamente a Penelope. Il caso di Itaca per sempre è diverso perché i personaggi non sono alienati esempi di uomini post-moderni, ma archetipi incisi nel mito greco con ruoli ben cristallizzati dalla tradizione.

Anche la lingua di Ulisse risente delle sue perplessità e delle sue paure: Ulisse dubita perfino delle sue glorie passate sotto le mura di Troia: Le lacrime che già avevamo incontrato sul volto della Penelope di Omero, qui sono copiose anche in suo marito.

Lo stesso Ulisse non se ne capacita: Questo non riconoscersi rappresenta la novità che Malerba apporta al mito. Tuttavia non è la prima volta che lo scrittore offre una riflessione sul problema del riconoscimento, che infatti è presente anche in un altro suo scritto, pubblicato in Allegoria nel col titolo Un fantasma di nome Andrea.

Nel racconto si perviene al riconoscimento di una sfasatura che impedisce la pacifica corrispondenza delle cose nei nomi. Ulisse dice di essere Nessuno per ingannare il Ciclope, Luigi si fa chiamare Andrea per non lasciare prove della sua relazione extraconiugale. Penelope, invece, diversamente da altre figure femminili malerbiane dalla frammentaria identità ad esempio la misteriosa protagonista della Superficie di Eliane , la Miriam del Serpente , o la donna di Salto Mortale con i suoi molteplici nomi , è un personaggio saldo e forte, consapevole delle sue azioni e desideroso di vendetta: La Penelope di Malerba è più forte del suo Ulisse.

Quando visito le grotte dove si fa e si conserva il vino, i contadini vogliono ogni volta farmi assaggiare il mosto, che non mi piace, e ogni volta io devo incoraggiarli e fare i miei complimenti per il frutto delle loro fatiche come farebbe Ulisse.

I contadini sono felici di queste visite e poi ne parlano fra loro per lunghi giorni. Sono la loro regina e non posso rimanere perennemente rinchiusa nelle mie stanze, devo farmi vedere dai miei sudditi, scambiare qualche parola con loro, offrire dei piccoli doni. Lo sguardo di Penelope interroga il mito, arrivando addirittura a dubitarne, per ricercare una verità finale. Rimette in questione perfino i consolidati epiteti che hanno sempre accompagnato il nome di Ulisse: Capozzi si chiede se Itaca per sempre non rappresenti semplicemente un mero divertissement littéraire: Itaca per sempre fa la sua comparsa nel Il ri-scrivere è tipico di un tempo che guarda al passato e che, dalla conclusione di un percorso, cerca le origini a cui appartiene e da cui ripartire.

E la novità della riscrittura odisseica del XXI secolo è la donna. E anche The Penelopiad , come Itaca per sempre , propone un racconto a più voci: Atwood analizza molto più in profondità di Malerba il rapporto di Penelope con le sue origini, con i genitori e con la cugina Elena. Capitan Ulisse di Savinio.

Lo spazio di Penelope è la sua reggia, la sua stanza, simbolo del non viaggio acutamente analizzato da Adriana Cavarero: Ma Penelope disfa di notte quello che ha tessuto di giorno, rendendo il tempo intoccabile dagli eventi e la sua stanza mondo impenetrabile dove la donna radica e custodisce la propria appartenenza Cavarero, , pp.

La prospettiva teorica proposta dalla Cavarero è ribadita dalla riscrittura malerbiana. Idea che, più che fondarsi su pretese storiche, restituisce al lettore il senso più prezioso del mito: La stessa Penelope ce lo dice: Penelope, insomma, è una donna, diremmo oggi, psicologicamente forte. Penelope fa del suo meglio: Ma gli Itacensi, quando sentono canti e balli provenienti dalla reggia dovuti, in realtà, alle celebrazioni per il ritorno di Ulisse , subito dicono: Penelope ha fatto esattamente il contrario.

Gli Itacensi e il mito non le rendono una giusta testimonianza. Il dramma di Penelope è paradossale perché il suo eroismo le richiede il coraggio di non essere riconosciuta come eroina. Eppure la sua figura è legata solo a un telaio e al mito di suo marito. Non capisco con quanta presunzione Ulisse abbia sospettato della mia fedeltà. Non mi ha forse ripetutamente tradito durante i suoi viaggi?

È forse meno doloroso per una donna il tradimento del suo uomo di quanto non sia doloroso per un uomo il tradimento della sua donna? Chi ha stabilito che una donna debba soffrire e perdonare? Rivista di studi italiani , XV 2 , pp. Autografo , 13, pp. Borghi and Treder U. Rivista di studi italiani , XV 1 , pp. Un fantasma di nome Andrea. Allegoria , 7, pp.

Repubblica , 20 Mar. Lo sguardo di Penelope. Ulisse tra due mari. I paradossi tendenziosi di Luigi Malerba. Autoreferenzialità e intertestualità in Luigi Malerba.

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Even more relevant to our analysis is the revision of the myth by Italian philosopher of sexual difference Adriana Cavarero in her ground-breaking work In Spite of Plato Paola Benchi Naming the Child: At times verging on incestuous drives towards both parents by her own admission she shares with the mother the same sexual partners out of a wish to possess her through their bodiesshe is obsessed with the male organ and fantasizes having it. Lo sguardo di Penelope. maman francaise porn erotica nancy Questa volta le zoccole sono due, una bionda tettona ed un It may be hard to resist the temptation of seeing in Suna the image of the advocate feminist. She has written short stories and novels and Lo spazio bianco was made into a successful film in A Theory of Social-Symbolic Practice. Scena centrale dl film porno I'm So Young delnella In this suspended spazio bianco names do not yet constitute identities. Share Twitter Facebook Linkedin.

In other words, her mother performed the role assigned to her by patriarchy, the same role that Maria is trying to dismiss: Her mother had been brought up as a mater dolorosa with no desires and no body. The relationship between Maria and her mother can be understood through theories of object-relations which focus on the familial environment, especially the theories of the feminist psychoanalysts Chodorow and Flax, and those of Bollas.

Names and naming, in fact, remind us that identities are primarily established in the name-of-the-father, even when they can be subverted and shifted towards a maternal genealogy.

Social structures, Nancy Chodorow a; b underlines, are important because subject-formation occurs firstly in the ambit of the family, which is itself a social structure at the service of patriarchy: Boys must be more differentiated than girls from their mothers and in differentiating themselves they develop a stronger sense of autonomy and individuality.

On the contrary, the girl will never separate enough from the mother in order to retain feminine traits; for this reason, she will become more dependent on others and keen to establish social relationships. Differently from Chodorow, Jane Flax sees this lack of separation between mother and daughter as a hindrance for her identity formation: Consequently, women cannot solve their problems if they do not come to terms with their relationship with their own mothers: Maria had rejected the patriarchal role that her mother had assumed; nonetheless, her newly forming motherhood has stirred up the memory of her relationship with her own mother.

Consequently, because the transitional object par excellence is the mother, in the adult woman the presence of the mother will haunt her also during her own search for an identity as a mother. Then, the final regained jouissance which links Maria to both her mother and Irene allows the protagonist to leave her state of suspension: Mi serve un catalogo Chicco e delle lenzuola, piccole.

It is the beginning of a new embodied subjectivity: Maria is eventually a mother. The Ethics of Interruption. London and New York: Like Subjects, Love Objects: Essays on Recognition and Sexual Difference.

New Haven and London: The Shadow of the Object: Psychoanalysis of the Unthought Known. Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. The Psychic Life of Power: The Reproduction of Mothering: University of California Press. Feminist Studies 4 1 , pp. A Theory of Social-Symbolic Practice. Indiana University Press, pp. Trouble in the Archives, 4, pp. University of Minnesota Press. Maternal Subjectivity, the Ready-made mother-monster and the Ethics of Respecting.

Studies in the Maternal 2 1 , pp. The Future of Difference. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Speculum of the Other Woman. This Sex Which is not One. The Silent Substratum of the Social Order. Creating a Woman-to-Woman Sociality.

Revolution in Poetic Language. Guildford Columbia University Press. Le séminaire, Livre IV: La relation d'objet et les structures freudiennes. The Signification of the Phallus. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan: Crucial problems for Psychoanalysis. Gallagher from unedited French manuscripts for private use only. Of the Gaze as Objet Petit a. Dublin and Portland, Irish Academic P.

Feminist Philosophy and Modern European thought. Columbia University Press, pp. The Passion of Feminine: Italian Feminist Theory and Practice: Equality and Sexual Difference. Associated University Presses, pp. Studies in the Maternal , 1 1 , pp. Parallax , 15 1 , pp. Mind, 14 56, October , pp. Republished in , Mind, , pp. The philosophy of Logical Atomism.

Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena. Dacia Maraini has created a body of work that questions the mechanisms of oppression and manipulation at play within the economy of a heterosexual regime. Following this line of enquiry, in this article I will be looking at the question of female sexuality as tackled in three works by Dacia Maraini: I shall posit that, although at odds with the gender roles patriarchal society would expect them to fulfil, the female characters portrayed in these texts do not seem willing to embrace an exclusive sexuality either.

An acute observer of and an active participant in Italian reality, Dacia Maraini has created a body of work that gives an insightful account of the plight of women through different epochs. Namely, they are gender scripts which, being passed down from generation to generation, women are called to constantly re-enact.

Ever since the publication, in , of her influential Gender Trouble , issues of gender, sexuality and performance have always been central in the work of Butler, whose main goal is the destabilisation of the traditional notion of the subject, aimed at exposing its performative nature.

Following this line of enquiry, in this article I will be looking at the question of female sexuality in three works by Dacia Maraini written between the mids and the beginning of the following decade: Donna in guerra , Storia di Piera and Lettere a Marina My analysis will highlight the subversion of the socially prescribed gender roles allotted to women within a male-defined perspective.

Wittig starts from the assumption that lesbians are not women. In order to be a woman, in her view, one ought to have a relationship of dependence with men. Thus, the category of women as we understand it is but a product of the straight heterosexual mind Wittig, The passage where the French philosopher speculates on the implications of the erasure of socially discriminating sexual markers reads as follows: In this sentence, the ontological roots of gender identity are called into question.

Similarly, in the works which constitute the object of the present study, normative gendered codes are subverted and disrupted; after all, the deconstruction of heterosexual hegemony is for Maraini first and foremost a political strategy, a tool to which she resorts in order to extricate her female characters from a rigid patriarchal frame. Gender becomes an on-going process à la Butler which, resonating with a Derridean utopia, encompasses polymorphous manifestations thus eluding pre-existing social scripts.

Current criticism on the novels under consideration has focussed primarily on the theme of female identity, most notably in the analysis of Donna in guerra, Tamburry, ; Cavallaro, , or the mother-daughter bond Dagnino, , a bond that has also been read as transcending biological motherhood thus proving to be instrumental in the carving out of a space, for women, within patriarchy Picchietti, Not a great deal of criticism has been produced that scrutinises the treatment of gender relations in Maraini.

I shall do so by engaging in an exploration of the sexualities as depicted in her texts in order to assess their potential for subverting the heterosexual norms of patriarchy.

In her relationship with Giacinto, the two characters re-enact, emblematically, the archetypal wife-husband hierarchy. Drawing on Derrida, Butler advocates deconstruction as a tool for recognising the mechanisms of exclusion of the phallocentric system that lead to how the female subject is constructed as such.

Vannina is what the system expects her to be. As such, her diary opens with a list of her housework tasks, which she records in a somewhat telegraphic, and obsessive, way: Ho lavato i piatti. Ho sgrassato le pentole. It is only thanks to the bond that she develops with emblematic female figures, that the protagonist can reconnect to a female experience and find the strength to embark on the road towards self-awareness.

With the island laundress Giottina and her friend Tota, Vannina replays the mother-daughter bond. With a taste for gossip and scabrous stories, the two matrons return Vannina back to the pre-symbolic semiotic sphere. And indeed, the erotically charged language that Tota and Giottina create, at times seems to be a non-language. Dense with symbolism, it both attracts and repels Vannina who, through these symbolic mothers, is nevertheless initiated into female complicity.

For Wittig there is no such thing as being a woman, or a man, as the category of sex has been created as a consequence of patriarchal oppression and has then become an alibi for social, economic, psychological differences between two artificially constituted sexes.

Eventually, the two women will find themselves in love with each other. It may be hard to resist the temptation of seeing in Suna the image of the advocate feminist.

She is an active member of a Marxist movement, on whose behalf she conducts a survey of the exploitation of female workers in the South of Italy and it is she who awakens Vannina from her state of passivity and subservience to her husband. And yet, upon closer examination, some inconsistencies in her character will soon come to the fore. The reader will discover that she is no less dependent on her father than Vannina is on Giacinto, although for different reasons.

This is a position with which Butler herself concurs, at least inasmuch as the performative character of the same is concerned Kirby, , p. Not only does Vannina disentangle herself from a patriarchal net of expectations and impositions, but also, on more than one occasion, she herself displays a sexuality that goes against sexual norms.

Undoubtedly the most emblematic character in the novel, the latter epitomises non-conformity to the Law of the Symbolic order, the primordial forces of nature against culture, against patriarchal society and the influence it exerts upon women. Her unconventionality and extraneousness to convention, but also, at a metaphorical level, the clash between the Semiotic Nature and the Symbolic Culture , is well exemplified by her behaving according to the cycle of the seasons: As the Greek myth goes, when her daughter Persephone is abducted and taken to the underworld, Demeter, upon whom the fruitfulness of the earth depends, renounces her divine functions to look for her, thus bringing about winter.

Even more relevant to our analysis is the revision of the myth by Italian philosopher of sexual difference Adriana Cavarero in her ground-breaking work In Spite of Plato Marginalisation and electroshock therapy is the exacted price for subverting the norm.

At times verging on incestuous drives towards both parents by her own admission she shares with the mother the same sexual partners out of a wish to possess her through their bodies , she is obsessed with the male organ and fantasizes having it.

The defiance of a prescriptive sexuality in the novel is exemplified by an account Piera herself gives of her mother: Lacking female support, her subversive nature cannot lead her beyond a mere critique deconstruction of patriarchal ideology.

Her cry against non-conformity will thus remain unheard and she will spend her last days in the seclusion of a mental hospital—her punishment for defying the Symbolic order. And it is perhaps no coincidence that both characters who subvert patriarchal sexual norms are made to die by Maraini. However, I would like to advance an interpretation of the novels that refutes a negative reading of the same, as if, to borrow Itala T.

It will thus serve the function of introducing the last of the three novels under discussion. If the universal is masculine, and heterosexual, then it follows that Bianca as woman, and a lesbian, is marked off by the system twice over. Indeed, it might be seen as a device used by women to free themselves from the constraints of a society modelled on a master father, husband, son? Bianca is constantly reminded of the need to escape a binary system and the imposition of rigid sexual categories.

Non capisco bene cosa vuol dire sola senza figli sola senza marito sola senza madri padre sorelle? She is not—as Butler would have it—socially intelligible. Bodies generate and, if we agree with Foucault, are generated by power relations, which, in turn, translate into incarnated binary constructs. Interestingly though and in line with the above, not only is the protagonist of the novel at odds with the gender roles patriarchal society would expect her to fulfil, but she seems equally unwilling to embrace a monolithic homosexuality.

On the other hand, it is also true that the coexistence of lesbianism and bisexuality in the text remains far from unproblematic. The implications of such a predicament are not difficult to foresee. Indeed, one is here faced with the paradox that the rejection of compulsory heterosexuality is carried out through the perpetuation of the very same binary structure which lies at its foundations.

But this does not mean privileging the feminine side of the debate either, as it would be but a repetition of the hierarchy—however reversed. In other words, the point is not displacing a dominant discourse which we have said is recognised as marked as masculine with its feminine counterpart. Indeed, to say that women love men, and cannot love women, is the same as to say that women love women, and cannot love men.

It is only the terms of the equation that change, not the effect. This also raises a point on the ambiguity which lies in the use of language and the limitations intrinsic to language itself—namely, its undecidability. And is it not perhaps significant that, at odds as he is with the logocentrism of the Western world, Derrida has chosen dance—that it to say, a non-verbal form of art—for his metaphor?

Following on from this premise, it would be too tempting to deduce that the novel ends in a reaffirmation of heterosexuality, a view taken by Beverly Ballaro , p. If it is true that Bianca, having given up on Marina, starts a relationship with the barman Damiano, it is also true that, towards the end of the novel, she feels an impulse to kiss his stepmother who is also his lover.

This reading finds further endorsement in a dream scene. Bianca is lying in bed and falls asleep; she starts dreaming about Damiano but soon after, between their bodies, an unidentified female figure makes an appearance, and Bianca finds herself fantasising about this unexpected presence.

By renouncing an arbitrary resolution of the sexuality of her female protagonist, then, Maraini seems to be warning the readers against the relativity of culturally determined gender roles, reminding them instead of the infinite spectrum of permutations gender might take. The very last scene would reinforce this interpretation. I would now like to briefly call for a comparison between the three works on the theme of female solidarity.

From Julia Kristeva to Luce Irigaray to Luisa Muraro not to forget American poet and essayist Adrienne Rich , feminists have focussed on revising the role of the maternal and the recuperation of a maternal symbolic order.

Bianca finds in Basilia that tenderness that Marina seems incapable to provide her, being obsessed as she is with the wish to possess her lover. And through this nurturing lovingness Bianca has also re discovered a bond with the figure of her mother. Because motherhood, as we perceive it in the text, not only transcends biological constraints, it also reaches out to women across generations.

Bianca, seen as a more mature, self-conscious version of Vannina, shows us that patriarchal libidinal economy has to be challenged from within the system. Indeed, Donna in guerra recounts the process of the consciousness-raising of the protagonist and concludes with her embarking on a journey towards self-awareness of whose outcome, however, we are given no account. In the same way as Vannina with the female figures she encounters along her path, Bianca proves to be receptive to the offer of allegiance from her mentor Basilia, an allegiance which she uses as a Trojan horse to oppose a phallocentric system that wants to silence her, her condition being represented, on a metaphorical level, by her inability to finish the novel she is working on as a professional writer.

Thus, unlike the mother in Storia di Piera , silenced by a phallocratic system which does not recognise her, she is able to find her own voice again, metaphorically, resuming her own story. As such, the suggestive formulation of the choreography of gender which opened this article becomes the key to the reading of the sexual identities portrayed in the three novels. Gender—seen as a dance—is reminiscent of a Derridean process which reminds us of the infinite spectrum of permutations it might take.

This might not provide feminism with a final answer on how to move from resistance into action, it is just the first step of the political programme which is called into question, but is a step nonetheless.

It exposes a logic of exclusion and calls for the construction of alternative spaces. It suggests that neither biology nor social constructs can define such a thing as the female sexed body. In Bodies that Matter , Butler questions the mutual exclusivity of heterosexuality and homosexuality Butler, By staging non-normative sexualities, Maraini provides, through her characters, a call for the understanding of gender roles as a product of rigid mechanisms of power which result in patterns of behaviour that, consolidated through time, translate into the political, social and cultural supremacy of the male over the female gender.

Making the Lesbian Body: New Perspectives in Italian Cultural Studies. Questo libro sulla memoria di una donna, Paese Sera , April 22 nd [online]. Se la donna ama una donna, Gazzetta del Popolo , April 18 th [online]. Dibattito su un libro difficile: Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: Theatre Journal , 40 4 , pp. A Politics of the Performative. Con tutto da ricominciare: In Spite of Plato: A Feminist Reading of Ancient Philosophy.

Towards a Theory of Sexual Difference. London and New York, Routledge. Fra madre e marito: Women in Italian Culture. Revolution in the Laundry. The pleasure of Writing: Critical Essays on Dacia Maraini.

Diacritics , 12 2 , pp. The Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman From Prostitution to Transsexuality: Judith Butler Live Theory. Italica, 65 4 , pp. An Anthology , Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. Motherhood as Experience and Institution. Tre Domande a Dacia Maraini. Il Resto del Carlino , November 18 th [online]. Feminist Theory as Practice: A Conversation with Dacia Maraini.

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